Category Archives: Notable Grenadians

Grenada Heritage: Biographies

Introduction

A biography is a history of a person’s life. A biography may give you birth, marriage, and death information and the names of parents, spouse, children, or other family members. Use the information from a biography cautiously because there may be inaccuracies.

You may locate individual or family biographies in the Surname Search of the Family History Library Catalog.

Biographies have been gathered and published in collections of biographies, sometimes called biographical encyclopedias or dictionaries. These usually include only biographies of prominent or well-known subjects. However, some collections of biographies are of specific groups such as ministers, musicians, painters, poets, radicals, or writers.

It is important to note that currently there is little in the way of individual or collective biographies on individuals born in Grenada or for those who have had great influence or participation in Grenada politically, socially, or otherwise. One would hope this will change in the future.

If your ancestor played an important part in a group or occupation, do a Place Search for Grenada in any British, Scottish, Canadian, North American, and Latin American biography archives, since people of note may be recorded in these. Although Grenada has little to do with Latin America many historical groups have collected Caribbean information which can include biographical details from Grenadian figures. Little work has been done on collections of biographies of African, Indian, or Portuguese descendant who have lived and died on Grenada’s islands.

Sources

For prominent historical figures, leaders, artists, businessmen, or religious the following sources may help:

  • American National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. (Print) ANB.org ($).

Some Prominent Names

This is a small list of prominent figures in Grenada’s long history – it is neither definitive nor complete. Further, it must be noted that, as is the case with all biographies, those listed here are neither the complete truth nor the whole life of the given individual.

Name (A) Biographical link
Arthur, James Stanley (1923–2010) Oxford University Press, 2014
Augustine, Fennis Lincoln Oxford University Press, 2014
Name (B) Biographical link
Beharry, Johnson (1979–) Damian Lynch, Garrick Hagon, and Nick Cook. Barefoot Soldier. Sphere, 2006
Benjamin, John (1934–2010) The Cultural Biographies of John Benjamin & Fernande Laas. S.l: s.n, 1990
Bishop, Maurice Rupert (1944–1983) Howard, Johnson. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009
Blaize, Rt. Hon. Herbert Augustus (1918-1989) Oxford University Press, 2014
Brizan, George Ignatius (1942–2012) Brave Young Grenadians: Loyal British Subjects…. Trinidad & Tobago: G. Brizan, 2002
Browne, Charles Macaulay (1885-) Oxford University Press, 2014
Butler, Tubal Uriah (1897–1977) O, Nigel B. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007
Bynoe née Gibbs, Dame Hilda Louisa, DBE (1921–2013) Collins, Merle. The Governor’s Story: The Authorized Biography of Dame Hilda Bynoe, 2013
Name (C) Biographical link
Charter, Joseph Stephen (1943-) Oxford University Press, 2013
Clyne, Reginald H. (1891-1974) Against the Currents. S.l: s.n., 1996
Coard, Frederick McDermott D. (1893-) Bitter-sweet and Spice: These Things I Remember. Ilfracombe: Stockwell, 1970
Coke, Rev. Thomas (1747–1814) A Journal of the Rev. Dr. Coke’s Third Tour Through the West Indies. London: G. Paramore, 1791
Collins, Merle (1950-) Bloom, Harold. Caribbean Women Writers. Philadelphia: Chelsea House, 1997
Cugoano, Ottobah Narrative of the Enslavement of Ottobah Cugoano…. Chapel Hill, N.C.:, 1999
Name (D) Biographical link
Davis, Hon. Sir Maurice Herbert (1912-1988) Oxford University Press, 2014
De Gale, Sir Leo Victor (1921-1986) Oxford University Press, 2014
Name (E) Biographical link
Ellis, George (1753-1815) J, M R, and Mills Rebecca. Ellis, George. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Name (G) Biographical link
Gairy, Sir Eric Matthew (1922–1997) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Gentle, Eileen Before the Sunset: A Memoir of Grenada. Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec: Shoreline, 1999
Gibbs, Oswald Moxley (1927-1995) Oxford University Press, 2014
Glean, Sir Carlyle Arnold (1932-) Oxford University Press, 2013
Graham, Sir Samuel Horatio (1912–1999) Oxford University Press, 2014
Grant, McGodden Kerensky “Cacademo” (1917-1982) Brathwaite, Shirley R. Cacademo Grant: Hero of the People’s Revolution. St. Georges: Printed by Government Printery, 1983
Granger, Winifred Held Captive: Memoirs of a Caribbean Woman. Trinidad: Phyllis Andrews, 2012
Grenada, 15 Dedicated 15 Dedicated Men and Women Who Have Served Their Country. National Democratic Congress Presents. Grenada: s.n, 1990
Grenada, Colonial Administrators Colonial Administrators and Post-Independence Leaders in Grenada Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005
Name (H) Biographical link
Henry, Sir Denis Aynsley (1864–1925) Oxford University Press, 2014
Herb, Ras Rehabilitation or Death., 1991
Hughes, Alister Earl Hewitson (1919-2005) Lewis, Paula. Alister Hughes: Glimpses into the Life of a Great Grenadian. St. Patrick, Grenada: Belmont Estate Heritage Foundation, 2004
Hutchinson, Leslie Arthur Julien ‘Hutch’ (1900-1969) Breese, Charlotte. Hutch. London: Bloomsbury, 1999
Name (K) Biographical link
Keens-Douglas, Richardo (1953-) Solomon, Frances-Anne. Believe – with Richardo Keens-Douglas. Toronto, Ont: Literature Alive Corp, 2005
Kent, Dr. Edward Roy (1920-2009) Kent, Edward, and Susan Payetta. Up Before Dawn. Grenada: Sail Rock Publishing, 2011
Name (L) Biographical link
Lewis, Sir Arthur (1915-1991) Transcript of the World Exclusive Radio Programme: Sir Arthur Lewis, His Life, Achievements and Thoughts. Castries, St. Lucia?: R. Lalljie, 1993
Lorde, Audre Geraldine (1934–1992) James, D S. Lorde, Audre. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003
Name (M) Biographical link
Mackenzie, Lt-Gen. Colin (1806-1881) A, J A, and T S. Roger. Mackenzie, Colin. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
MacQueen, James (1778-1870) Gordon, Goodwin, and Baigent Elizabeth. Macqueen, James. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Marryshow, Hon. Theophilus Albert (1887-1958) Sheppard, Jill. Marryshow of Grenada: An Introduction. Grenada: s.n., 1987
Marshall née Burke, Valenza Pauline ‘Paule’ (1929-) Triangular Road: A Memoir. New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2009
Mcintyre, Sir Meredith Alister (1932-) Oxford University Press, 2013
Name (P) Biographical link
Palmer, Sir Reginald Oswald (1923-) Oxford University Press, 2013
Paterson, Nicholas Julian (1867-) Oxford University Press, 2014
Phillips, Harold Adolphus (1929–2000) James, McGrath. Phillips, Harold Adolphus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012
Pigott, Sir Arthur Leary (1749-1819) R, A M. Pigott, Sir Arthur Leary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Pitt, David Thomas (1913-1994) Mike, Phillips. Pitt, David Thomas, Baron Pitt of Hampstead. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Protain, Gertrude Isobel (-2005) Compton, Shadel N. Gertrude Isobel Protain: Glimpses into the Life of a Great Grenadian. St. Patrick, Grenada: Belmont Estate Heritage Foundation, 2004
Purcell née Orgias, Joan M. (1942-) Memoirs of a Woman in Politics: Spiritual Struggles of Joan M. Purcell. St. George’s, Grenada, W.I: J.M. Purcell, 2007
Name (R) Biographical link
Robertson, James Burton (1800-1877) Thompson, Cooper, and Lloyd Myfanwy. Robertson, James Burton. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Roux, Phillippe de Le Marquis de Casaux, un Planteur des Antilles, Inspirator de Mirabeau. Paris: Société de l’histoire des Colonies Françaises; en vente: Libraire Larose, 1951
Name (S) Biographical link
Scoon, Sir Paul Godwin (1935–2013) Survival for Service: My Experiences As Governor General of Grenada. Oxford, England: Macmillan Caribbean, 2003
Shrewsbury, Rev. William James (1795–1866) Memorials of the Rev. William J. Shrewsbury. London: Hamilton, Adams, 1867
Name (W Biographical link
Watts, Sir John Augustus Fitzroy Oxford University Press, 2013
Wharton, Arthur (1865-1930) Phil, Vasili. Wharton, Arthur. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004
Williams, Eric Eustace (1911-1981) Palmer, Colin A. Eric Williams & the Making of the Modern Caribbean. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006
Williams, Sir Daniel Charles (1935-) Oxford University Press, 2013

You may find some collections under the localities listed above and then the subject “GENEALOGY.”

 

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Author: Ric Greaves

Grenada Heritage: Our Plantations – part 3

James Evan Baillie

We know little of the man as a person, however, we can see from the records that he was a very astute businessman that would not seem out of place in a modern-day big-city financial sector only to be given accolades for his cleaver choices.  Only in hindsight, giving the context in which he and his family made financial acquisitions and the period they are set will the modern reader consider possibly branding James Evan Baillie (and his family) as tyrants dealing in the assets of slavery. Maybe today some would even set up a “Nuremberg trial” or a “McCarthy Committee” to pursue their decedents?

Born in 1781, he was the son of Evan Baillie (1742-1835), the merchant of Bristol and Dochfour, Inverness and Mary Gurley (daughter of Peter Gurley of the island of St. Vincent).

James became a London and Bristol merchant and banker (of the firm Baillie, Ames & Baillie), and was a major and astute recipient of slave compensation across the Caribbean.

James is described as thus by Rubinstein: “His family moved from being successful West Indies planters to bankers in Bristol”. 1  This was in 1812 when James had become a partner with his brother, Colonel Hugh Duncan Baillie (of Red Castle and Tarradale), as the two took over the management of the family firm (now ‘Bristol Old Bank’) on the death of his eldest brother Peter.

In 1829 James ‘acquired’ Redland Court mansion (Bristol, England) and 150 acres surrounding farmland from Sir Richard Vaughan, following Vaughan’s bankruptcy. This was because six years earlier Vaughan had mortgaged the estate to their company Elton, Baillie & Co (the Old Bank).
James later became a Member of Parliament (Whig) for Tralee (1813-18) and then in the 1830 Parliamentary elections for Bristol (1830-35), James Baillie and Edward Protheroe both stood for the Whig seat in Bristol (Bristol had two Members of Parliament, and the two seats were divided between the Tory party and the Whig party: voting at this time was not very democratic). Protheroe, whose family were involved in trade with the West Indies, declared himself opposed to slavery. Baillie, also from a West Indian trade family, supported slavery. A number of leaflets were published by both candidates attacking each other and promoting their own views. In the election, Baillie won the Whig seat by 535 votes.

 

James was a large-scale purchaser of Scottish land, acquiring Glentrome in Badenoch (£7,350) in 1835; Glenelg, Western Highlands (£77,000) in two years later; Glenshiel (£24,500) the following year; and Letterfinlay (£20,000) in 1851.

He appears never to have lived at Redland Court, the occupant being William Edwards, a partner in the Old Bank 1816-52. But he left the Redland estate to his nephews Evan Baillie (of Dochfour) and Henry James Baillie (MP of Elsenham Hall Essex), plus James Leman his attorney as trustees. They sold Redland Court for development and the house is now Redland High School. 2

James lived at 1 Seamore Place, Curzon Street Mayfair both in the 1830s and at his death on 14 Jun 1863. He remained unmarried and died leaving £120,000.

Grenada Plantations

Levera Estate Plantation, St. Patrick’s, Grenada

Levera Estate belonged to a Mr. Snell in April 1785. 3

At a later date Alexander Fraser (1759-1837, of Inchcoulter, Kiltearn, in Rosshire, Scotland) came to Grenada in the late 1790s, he was instrumental in raising money there for the Northern Infirmary in Inverness. In 1806 he purchased his Inchcoulter estate and created the village of Evanton there.  Alexander was also a friend of William Smith (of Revolution Hall) and was mentioned in his Will to receive £2000.  It is certain that in 1825 Alexander owned plantation Levera Estate.

Following the act of 1811 abolishing the slave trade the colonies instituted registers of negroes lawfully held in slavery. A further act of 1819 established an Office for the Registry of Colonial Slaves in London, England.  Finally in 1834 slavery was abolished in British colonies and to ensure it effectiveness the act of 1833 provided a sum of £20 million to ‘compensate slave proprietors’. Its distribution was entrusted to a Slave Compensation Commission which began to meet in October 1833 and was terminated at the end of 1842.

On the 9th November 1835 Alexander Fraser (as owner-in-fee) made a contested claim to this Slave Compensation Commission.  It was for 94 slaves at Levera Estate for £2759 1s 0d.  However a successful counterclaim from Hugh Duncan Baillie, James Evan Baillie and George Henry Ames, all of the City of Bristol, as ‘Assignees for the whole compensation money’. 4

Hermitage Estate Plantation, St. Andrew’s, Grenada

Alexander was also in charge of the Baillie’s plantation Hermitage, and was described, at this time, as a ‘planter of experience’. He was probably also a member of the Grenada Council. He  married Evan Baillie’s niece (Emilia Duff of Muirton) ‘some years ago’ and when his son was born in Grenada in 1800/01 the couple named the child Evan Baillie Fraser (1800-91). 5

By 1807 he was regularly described as ‘late of Grenada’ indicating that he was now resident in the UK. In 1812, with the death of Evan Baillie, Alexander Fraser entered into a partnership with Evan Baillie’s third son, James Evan Baillie, trading as JE Baillie, Fraser & Co of London. This company, dissolved in 1820, consisted of James Evan Baillie, Alexander Fraser, Hugh D Baillie, George H Ames and George Fowler. 6

On the 23rd January 1836 a compensation claim was made for 149 slaves at Hermitage Estate, Grenada for £4030 4s 3d by Evan Baillie (who we know was by this time deceased), as trustee on behalf of the proprietors of the Estate.

The previous part-owners were Colin Chisholm (MD of Bristol d.1825) and the Baillie brothers’ father James Baillie (MP of Bedford Square and Ealing Grove, d.1793).

A failed counterclaim was attempted by fishmongerer Rowland Ryley (of 3 Orange Street, Red Lion Square, England), based on a grantee of an annuity of £185 18s, secured by assignment of a legacy bequeathed by the Will of James Baillie Snr.  In this case J. H. Forbes acted as agent for the Baillies and secured in their favour. 7

John Sleeper, in 1860, declared “The Hermitage was one of the finest plantations in Grenada. It was pleasantly situated on elevated ground, a few miles from the sea shore, and was the residence of Mr. Houston, a gentleman of great respectability, who was attorney for the for the estate, and also the plantation adjoining, called Belmont.”  The previous owner, an Englishman name Bailey (sic) “had spared no expense in stocking the grounds with fruits of various kinds…”.  Sadly Houston had the axe freely used to chopped down all of these trees to make way for sugar cane crop. 8

Revolution Estate Plantation, St. John’s, Grenada

The Revolution Hall Estate, at the time overseen by Joseph Barlow, existed during the 1795 ‘insurrection’. It was described in 1845, as “a rich, fertile sugar estate, about two or three miles from the neat looking village or town of Goyave”.

On the 9th May 1836 a claim was made on 168 slaves at Revolution Hall Estate for £4210 16s 8d this belonged to Richard Oliver Smith, owner-in-fee, mortgaged by him on his second marriage.  However successful counterclaims by the Baillie brother, as mortgagees and assignees of a legacy of £580 and upwards and his mortgagers back in England for £4105 meant he gained nothing. 9

Richard Oliver Smith (May 1788 – ????) lived n Britain from c. 1793 to 1833. He was the illegitimate son of the Grenada slave-owner William Smith and Sarah Jean (or Dean, then ‘living with’ him) in Grenada.

His father Williams’s Will dated 15 July 1793 (registered 08 November 1794, but with handwritten note on margin ‘proved 30 April 1803’) shows an annuity of £150 later £700 to his lawful wife Elizabeth Smith (with a claus to revoked it if challenges); Sarah Jean was to stay in the house at Revolution Hall, £100 currency immediately, annuity of £150 sterling. £2000 sterling left to pay interest to children ‘being known and called by the descriptions following ‘Mary Smith now in England and Grace Smith in Grenada’, and to Richard Oliver Smith ‘now in England aged 5 years and 2 months’.

He was first married to a Harriet Gee in St Pancras (London, England, 21 August 1806) with whom he had a daughter Emily (b. 1808 Chelsea, Middlesex). Richard divorced Harriet for adultery an on 18 August 1819 married for a second time, to Mary Broderip (daughter of Edmund Broderip), in St. Cuthbert Church, Wells, Somerset, England. They had a daughter, Elizabeth Georgiana (bapt. 1828 Exeter, Devon). 10

A set of accounts for the Revolution Hall Estate exists for the year 1821 (held at the Burke Library, Hamilton College, Clinton, N.Y.) the 50 pages are accompanied by a copy of the conveyance of Revolution Hall to William Smith (dated 1771) and also by copies of letters to William Smith about the unprofitability of the plantation in the years 1832-33.  The Account book deals with maintenance, supplies, shipments of rum, and wages and includes lists of slaves on the estate on 31 December 1821, giving name, occupation and age of each. Also lists livestock.

Identified as of Gower Street on 23 July 1822 when he served as trustee for a marriage settlement and on 18 February 1833 a quitclaim appears between Richard Oliver Smith and his fellow trustees (Rogers Weatherall and Francis Broderip) where Richard is ‘released from trusteeship’ to live in West Indies when it appears to have moved to Grenada c. 1833.  The couple possibly had a son as well, Richard Joseph Sanderson Smith ( c. 1837 Trinidad), who went on to marry Pauline Josephine Nicholson in Middlesex in 1859. 11

His first daughter Emily Smith went on to marry Rev. John Nurse in Grenada in 1835.

Known Family Relationships – father Evan Baillie (1741-28 Jun 1835), brothers Hugh Duncan Baillie (31 May 1777-21 Jun 1866), first cousins Hugh James Baillie (1786-????), Alexander Baillie (13 Nov 1777-24 Jan 1835), Janet Higgins (née Baillie, 1773-1841), Colin Campbell Lloyd (née Baillie, 1781-1830).

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Sources

  1. William D. Rubinstein, Who were the rich? 1860- (Volumes 3 and 4, manuscripts in preparation), reference 1863/2.
  2. Bristol Record Office 6682/40 for Baillie’s involvement, and deeds of Redland High School purchase.
  3. Laws of Grenada and the Grenadines: From the Year 1766 to the Year 1852, No.XVII p.48
  4. Parliamentary Papers p. 99. T71/880: claim 690.
  5. David Alston, Slaves and Highlanders, http://www.spanglefish.com/slavesandhighlanders/index.asp?pageid=225176.
  6. London Gazette, thegazette.co.uk/London/issue/17703/page/986, 05/05/1821.
  7. Parliamentary Papers p. 312. T71/880: claim 701.
  8. Jack in the Forecastle, John Sherburne Sleeper, 1860, p.342-3.
  9. Parliamentary Papers p. 312. T71/880: claim 591.
  10. Familysearch batch no. M51385-3, I01821-5 and C05051-2. Ancestry.com, London, England, Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538-1812
  11. Settlement, quitclaim and mortgage P89_TRI/130 1822-1835.

Grenada Heritage: Our Plantations – part 2


The village of Baillie’s Bacolet, Saint David’s in the south-east of Grenada, more commonly referred to as simply Bacolet is named after the plantation that once stood in the area. We also mention plantations of Hermitage Estate in Saint Patrick’s north of the island, and Mount St. Bernard Estate in Saint Andrew’s east of the island, and Chemin Estate in Saint George’s south of the island.

 

Some of the family connections to this plantation are outlined here.

James Baillie born about 1737 was the second son of Hugh Baillie of Dochfour, Inverness, and brother of Evan Baillie (1742-1835). He married in Grenada on 26 April 1772 1, Colina, daughter and co-heir of Colin Campbell of Glenure (Argyll, Scotland), factor of the forfeited Stewart estates in Argyll and victim of the famous Appin murder in 1752. This meant that Colin[a] Campbell Baillie was the first cousin of James Evan Baillie and Hugh Duncan Baillie.

James and Colin[a] had three sons and three daughters. Between 1755 and 1771 the family lived in the West Indies, mainly at Grenada and St. Kitt.  Then in 1765 he and his elder brother Alexander became joint-owners when they purchased a 400-acre plantation in Grenada in 1765 and known as The Hermitage and the plantation Mount St. Bernard.

During his time in the Caribbean, he had visited every island except Jamaica, and had also acted as attorney for other plantation owners. Shortly before the outbreak of the American war, Baillie and two partners bought, as a speculation, the 4,400 acres in St. Vincent granted to General Richard Monckton in 1773. After the war the property was sold in lots.

In February of 1790, when he gave evidence before the committee of inquiry into the petitions of opponents of abolition of the slave trade, James stated that he complained to the committee that when abolition was bruited in 1788, potential buyers of his St. Vincent lots were frightened off, and that there remained unsold about 1,400 acres, which would become worthless if abolition was carried. 2  He was sole owner of the Northbrook plantation in Demerara, and later in 1790, he bought from the Bank of England two Grenada estates, Barolet and Chemin, for £100,000, paying a deposit of £45,000, with the balance to be paid at 4 per cent interest, in seven annual instalments. He subsequently conveyed the Chemin plantation to one Samuel Mitchell of Grenada. 3

At the general election of that same year James was to have come in for Horsham (West-Sussex, England) as a paying guest of Lady Irwin, but he and her son-in-law were beaten at the polls by nominees of the Duke of Norfolk. They were seated on petition in March 1792, by which time Baillie had been appointed agent for Grenada. This was when the politician William Wilberforce (1759–1833) sat down after moving abolition of the slave trade, 2 April 1792, James, speaking ‘in a low voice’ from the government side of the House, called for the petition of the West India planters and merchants to be read and then proceeded to argue at length, largely on commercial grounds, against the ‘wild, impracticable, and visionary scheme’ of abolition. James maintained that the negroes were generally well treated and that there was ‘more wretchedness and poverty in the parish of St. Giles’ than in the whole of the British colonies. 4  He subsequently had the speech published. In the renewed debate on the slave trade, 1 May, he claimed to have received information that several hundred fresh slaves had recently been sold in Jamaica, and when supporting the sugar bill, 22 May 1792, he contended that the planters ‘merited the peculiar protection’ of Parliament. No further trace of parliamentary activity has been found.

In his will, dated 12 August 1793, James Baillie left the Barolet estate in trust for his eldest son and his property at Ealing (West London, England), bought from the Duke of Argyll, to his wife, along with £1,000. He directed his executors to sell his other plantations and to apply the proceeds to payment of the balance owing for Barolet (about £40,000) and to provision of annuities totalling £3,000 for his wife, cash bequests of £10,000 for each of his five youngest children and other legacies in excess of £2,000. He died 7 September 1793.

 

Colin Campbell Lloyd, née Baillie (1781-1830) – the daughter of Miss Colin[a] Campbell and James Baillie.

 

Whist a baby, her father James commissioned a family portrait by the painter Thomas Gainsburgh in 1784, it includes her parents with their four eldest children and Colin is the fourth, shown as the baby on her mother’s knee. The painting was later bequeathed by a relation, Alexander Baillie, in 1868 to the Tate Art Gallery (London, England).

 

Collin [sic] Campbell Baillie married Edward Lloyd at St Marylebone in London (England) on the 8th August 1816.

Unfortunately before she reached the age of 50, Mrs Colin Campbell Lloyd, apparently became the victim of the quack doctor John St John Long of Harley Street:

 

“On Wednesday morning, the 10th of November, 1830, at eleven o’clock, J. H. Gell, Esq., and a highly respectable jury assembled at the Wilton Arms, Kinnerton Street, Knightsbridge, to inquire into the death of Mrs Colin Campbell Lloyd, aged forty-eight, the wife of Captain Edward Lloyd, of the Royal Navy, whose death was alleged to have been occasioned by the treatment she had experienced under the hands of Mr St John Long. The jury retired for about half-an-hour, and then returned the following verdict: “The jury, having attentively and deliberately considered their verdict, can come to no other than manslaughter against John St John Long.” The coroner inquired on what grounds they found their verdict. The foreman said: “On the ground of gross ignorance, and on other considerations.” Upon this second charge Mr Long was tried at the Old Bailey on the 19th of February, 1831. The jury, however, returned a verdict of not guilty. Several ladies, elegantly dressed, remained with the prisoner in the dock throughout the day, to whom this verdict appeared to give great satisfaction. Mr Long died in the year 1834, and his body was consigned to a tomb in the Harrow Road Cemetery, where a monument was erected to his memory at the cost of his former patients, who, in an inscription, paid a handsome tribute to his talents.”

 

The burial of Mrs Colin Campbell Lloyd, of St Georges Hanover Square (London, England), took place on the 13th November 1830.

Trustees of the marriage settlement of Miss Colin Campbell Baillie (Sir George Young and Sir John Tylden Maxwell) made a claim on the 2nd May 1836 to the Slave Compensation Commission (1812-1851) for the compensation for the 353 enslaved people on ‘Baillie’s Bacolet’ in St. David’s, Grenada and where awarded the sum of £8985 17s 2d.

Of cause the settlement wasn’t straight forward, a letter, dated 23 February 1836, from Hugh James Baillie (of Stone Buildings), asked how much was paid to his brother Alex Baillie, and the time of payment [T71/1609]. Then a claim against the settlemet was made by a John Wells (as receiver) which caused counterclaims from Janet Higgins (of Albemarle Street and widow of Matthew Higgins), as the assignee of a legacy under the will of their father James Baillie (1737-1793, MP of Bedford Square and Ealing Grove); Sir John Maxwell Tylden (of Milsted, Kent), and Sir George Young (of Formosa Place, Buckinghamshire), all as trustees for parties interested under the marriage settlement of our Miss Colin Campbell Baillie [T71/880].  The insident was reported in The Times on 16 July 1842 refering to Baillie versus Innes as “one of the numerous proceedings arising out of the failure of Mr Innes, who was formerly in partnership with Mr Nathaniel Winter as West India merchants” [p. 6].

In 1851, Edward Lloyd, aged 64, Captain RN, born Germany, was living at Cheltenham with his daughter Colin Campbell aged 33 and her husband Conway Whitehorne Lovesey (sometimes given as Lovesy).

Known Family Relationships – sister to Hugh James Baillie (1786-????), Alexander Baillie (13 Nov 1777-24 Jan 1835), and Janet Higgins (née Baillie, 1773-1841); niece to Evan Baillie (1741-28 Jun 1835); first cousin to James Evan Baillie (1781-14 Jun 1863) and Hugh Duncan Baillie (31 May 1777-21 Jun 1866).

 

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Sources

  1. Midlothian: Edinburgh Register of Marriages, 1751-1800 Volume 5. The Register of Marriages. (Edinburgh Reg. Scottish Rec. Soc. liii, 33).
  2. House of Commons Sessional Pprs. of 18th Cent. ed. Lambert, lxxi.
  3. See also Baillie’s will (PCC 494 Dodwell).
  4. Senator, iv. 512.
  5. 1631 volumes of Slave registers and records of the Slave Compensation Commission (1812-1851), CO T71/880 Grenada no. 864, NAUK.
  6. Douglas Hamilton, Scotland, the Caribbean and the Atlantic world, 1750-1820 (Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2005) pp. 89-90. History of Parliament Online for details of James Baillie.
  7. The Tate artworks – gainsborough, n00789.
  8. Ancestry.com, London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921.
  9. Newgate Calendar. Notice of death including report of the manslaughter verdict in the Annual Register (1830), Vol. 72 p. 277.
  10. Ancestry.com, London, England, Deaths and Burials, 1813-1980; National Probate Calendar 1889.
  11. 1851 census online.

 

 

We are grateful to Jim Brennan and David R. Fisher for his assistance in compiling this entry.

Grenada Heritage: Judith Philip – Her Legacies


Judith Philip
was born to a French baker turned planter Honore Philip and his ex-slave wife Jeannette sometime in the late 1760s. Upon the death of her father around 1779 she, along with her seven siblings, Honore junior, Michel, Susannah, JB Louis, Joachim, Nicholas Regis and Magdalene inherited Honore and Jeannette’s accumulated property worth some 400,000 livres. This property included Lots in Grenada and the outlying islands of Carriacou and Petite Martinique. The family was a close knit one and repeated transactions show all of the siblings interacting with one another continually throughout their lives. Judith, her brothers and sisters also had white French uncles who also lived in Grenada and who owned property. One of them, Francois was particularly prominent as a Justice of the Peace and a Protector of Slaves.

This property inheritance was divided up among the children in portions with Judith taking the main plantation – Grand Ance, Carriacou where she lived, along with several smaller parcels of land. Rapidly Judith added to this initial inheritance by buying more land from her siblings when some of them moved out of planting and others moved to Trinidad to start successful branches of the family there. Further gains were made in the late 18th century when her brother Nicholas Regis died and another family friend Louis Monque also passed away leaving his wealth to Judith and her siblings.

Sometime in the 1770s she began a relationship with Englishman Edmund Thornton (q.v.) who was then a junior attorney and plantation manager looking after estates on Carriacou. It is quite likely that at this stage it was Judith who was the wealthier of the two. While on Carriacou the couple had three children: Ann Rachel Thornton, Louis-Edmund Thornton, Magdalene Thornton.

In the 1790s with war and revolution tearing through the Caribbean the situation on Grenada had become precarious. By 1794 Edmund Thornton and Judith Philip decided to go to England. Possibly connected with this relocation was the education of their children. Judith Philip’s property, that now included not just property in Grenada and its dependencies but Trinidad as well, was placed in the hands of managers and her extended family.

This move to the UK was fortuitous. In the 1790s Judith’s younger brother Joachim, in contrast to the rest of his siblings, fell deeply into debt. In 1795, a short while after being sued by his creditors he took up with the revolutionary Julian Fedon, becoming one of his most trusted lieutenants. While it was ultimately unsuccessful, the 1795 Fedon Rebellion destroyed Grenada’s prosperity. It was to be years before it recovered to its pre 1795 levels. The British reprisals were savage and uncompromising particularly to those of mixed race who were seen as the main instigators of the conflict. Despite initially escaping, Joachim was eventually caught in 1803 and hung in the market square St Georges. Despite her brother’s involvement it is a testament to Judith Philip’s standing that she and the rest of the extended family escaped recrimination.

After purchasing a house in London at 33 Great Coram Street Judith left Carriacou and lived in London round the corner from Edmund Thornton. Judith and Edmund’s relationship became a complex one however when, in 1796, Thornton married Jane Butler the daughter of wealthy Cheshire gentry. Despite Thornton’s marriage he and Judith shared two more children together: Philip Thornton born sometime in the nineteenth century and Judith Thornton born in 1807.

In 1808 Judith left Thornton and returned to Carriacou where until her death in 1848 she remained a prominent and respected part of the Grenadian plantocracy with connections to some of the empires biggest merchant families such as the Campbells, and the Baillies. Her extensive property that included, not only the land she owned in Grenada and the house at Great Coram Street (in England) but other property in London (England) as well was divided up among her surviving children; Ann Rachel, Magdalene and Judith. Her two sons Louis Edmund (a London based merchant) and (who was training to be an attorney) died in the 1820s. Louis Edmund however had five children who also inherited from their grandmother: William Wheeler Thornton, Ellen Ann, Magdalene, Francis Catherine and Jeannette Rose Thornton. With the death in 1848 of Ann Rachel Thornton, the two surviving daughters of Judith Philip moved to London to be with their nieces and nephews. By 1855 the family had sold all the remaining property in Carriacou, Petite Martinique and Grenada and Judith Philip’s well-managed wealth was divided between them.

Following the act of 1811 abolishing the slave trade the colonies instituted registers of negroes lawfully held in slavery. A further act of 1819 established an Office for the Registry of Colonial Slaves in London, England.  Then in 1834 slavery was abolished in British colonies and to ensure it effectiveness the act of 1833 provided a sum of £20 million to ‘compensate slave proprietors‘. Its distribution was entrusted to a Slave Compensation Commission which began to meet in October 1833 and was terminated at the end of 1842.

Judith made three uncontested claims to this Slave Compensation Commission. In 1834 she registered her slaves and made her claims the following November of 1835 for 64 slaves at ‘Petit Ance Estate‘ (£1,499 18s 9d, Claim No. 912), 68 at ‘Susanna Estate‘ (£1,558 8s 5d, Claim No.944), and 143 at ‘Grand Ance Estate‘ (£3,546 17s 5d, Claim No. 948). [T71/328 p. 105]

While her two surviving daughters would die as spinsters, three of Judith Philip’s grandchildren married and had issue – William Wheeler who became a prominent Anglican Minster would die in the 1890s worth well over £30,000 pounds which was inherited by his son Edmund. Ellen Ann married the Anglican Minister Thomas Boys the brother of William Wheeler’s wife and had a least three daughters. Magdalene married a prominent academic Henry Amedroz – one their two sons was killed in the Boer war while the other died a wealthy barrister in 1917 without issue. Jeannette Rose and Francis Catherine remained as spinsters. When Magdalene Thornton died in London in the 1890s she left an estate worth over £35,000.

_______

Sources

  1. Lorna McDaniel ‘The Philips: A ‘Free Mulatto’ Family of Grenada’, Journal of Caribbean History 24 (2) (1990), pp. 178-94.
  2. Kit Candlin, The Last Caribbean Frontier 1795-1815 (Basingstoke, Palgrave MacMillan, 2012), ch. 1, ‘What Became of the Fedon Rebellion’, pp. 1-23.
  3. ‘Carriacou Plantation Slave Registers’, 1833, pp. 2-12, T-71/319, National Archives of the United Kingdom (NAUK) and ‘Grenada Compensation’, 1836, no.780, ‘Judith Philip’, NDO 4/10, NAUK.
  4. ‘Judicial Report of the Evidence in the Case of Jose’, 1834, pp.136-138, CO 101/78, NAUK.
  5. Honore Philip to the Heirs of Honore Philip, 10 Sep 1785, p.50, Deeds K3, Supreme Court Registry of Grenada (SRG).
  6. ‘Judith Philip to Michel Philip Release’ 26 May 1789, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Deeds: Unnumbered Box, SRG.
  7. ‘Catherine Philip to the Heirs of Honore Philip Deceased’, 15 Jun 1786 pp.560-562, Deeds V1, SRG.
  8. ‘Marie-Magdalaine Vigi Philip to Henry Hilaire de Moussacq’, 27 Jan 1807, pp. 61-66, Deeds S4, SRG.
  9. ‘Articles of Agreement between the heirs of Honore and Jeanette Philip (Deceased)’ 7 Sep 1778, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century Deeds: Unnumbered Box, SRG.
  10. ‘Description of the Grenadines’, S.V. Morse, 1778, CO 101/16, NAUK.
  11. ‘Philip Family Indenture’, 10 Sep 1785, Deeds K3, SRG.
  12. ‘Articles of Agreement Between the Philip Family’, 10 Sep 1785, pp.51-61, Deeds K3, SRG.
  13. ‘Last Will and Testament of Judith Philip’, 25 Nov 1848, Probate, 11/2105, NAUK.
  14. ‘The Children of Edmund Thornton and Judith Philip to their Attorneys’, 09 Apr 1855, pp.289-292, Deeds W-C3, SRG.
  15. UK Articles of Clerkship 1756-1874, ‘Philip Thornton to Stacey Grimaldi witnessed by Edmund Thornton’ 15 Feb 1816.
  16. H. Gordon Slade, ‘Craigston and Meldrum Estates 1769-1841’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 114 (1984), pp. 481-537.
  17. ‘Judith Philip about to Depart for England and May be Absent For Some Time Appoints Duncan Campbell, James Baillie and Suzanna Philip as her Attorneys’, 24 Jun 1794, Deeds E2, SRG.
  18. ‘Judith Philip About to Depart for England Appoints Pierre Charbonne and Joseph Newton as Attorneys’, 30 May 1803, pp.492-493, SRG.
  19. For Thornton’s Address and his marriage to Jane Butler see ‘Edmund Thornton sale of Morne Rouge’, 9 Jul 1814, pp.448-451, Deeds Y2, SRG.
  20. ‘Joachim Philip with William Scott’ no.3288, Court of Common Pleas 1794-1796, SRG.
  21. ‘Secretary of State Portland to Houston’ pp.238-242, Governors In Letters Grenada, CO 101/34, NAUK.
  22. ‘Children of Judith Philip: Intention to sell’, 9 Apr 1855, Deeds W-C3, SRG.
  23. ‘Last Will and Testament of Ann-Rachel Thornton’, 04/04/1849, Deeds B4, SRG.
  24.  1631 volumes of Slave registers and records of the Slave Compensation Commission (1812-1851), CO T71, NAUK.

 

For details of the lives of her descendents, such as inheritance, estate value at death, marriage etc see the various items for the family at Ancestry.com.  We are grateful to Kit Candlin for compiling this biographical-outline.

 

Further Information

Absentee?             Transatlantic
Children                [With Edmund Thornton] Ann Rachel, Louis-Edmund, Magdalene, Philip, Judith (1807-)
Occupation           Planter
Religion                Roman Catholic

Relationships

Aunt                      Marie Magdalaine Vigi Philip
Niece                     Jeanne Rose Philip
Nephew                 St Luce Philip

Grenada Heritage: Plantations – Baccaye Estate

Baccaye Plantation Estate

WesterhallBaccaye Plantation Estate now know as Westerhall Estate is in the parish of St David, Grenada.  The map shown here shows its location on the south coast. The survey of 1824 shows the estate was a sugar plantation of 951 acres – considered one of the largest on the island – although today only rum is produced. Many go to sample the wares but you can also retrace the footsteps of one James MacQueen (1778-1870) who worked on the estate when it was owned by the Johnstone family of Dumfries, Scotland [1]. It seems that William Johnstone Pulteney was involved with a disputed compensation claim for over £4800 for 176 slaves on Westerhall in 1837. MacQueen himself was a large scale claimant of compensation for enslaved peoples on St Kitts.SAM_3073

 

 

 

However, more interesting is the earlier period which has been illuminated by David Lambert’s work on MacQueen’s imperial career, especially when he was the resident overseer on Westerhall, 1797-1810 [2]. MacQueen was part of a wider migration from Scotland during the period 1750-1800 in which up to 17,000 young men temporarily relocated to the West Indies in search of fame and fortune. SAM_3012He arrived on Grenada in the immediate aftermath of the failed Fedon’s rebellion of 1795 (provoked when the English island leaders not honoring the French move to emancipating all their colonial slaves) and Lambert cites correspondence outlining the damage done during the revolt: ‘most of the canes at Westerhall that were uncut had been burnt, together with the Dwelling House and Out Houses at the Point, and I have since learnt that the Works on the Estate, as well as on almost every other Estate in the Island, were also burnt’ [3]. The rebuilding of Westerhall thus represented a formative period in the Scottish sojourner’s life.  Originally from Crawford in Lanarkshire in Scotland, MacQueen entered into a decimated plantation economy and a colonial society divided by religion and nationality which, according to Lambert, shaped his conservative, anti-Catholic and anti-French outlook. SAM_3087According to Lambert, MacQueen oversaw the rebuilding of Westerhall in the aftermath of the rebellion for which he was paid £40 sterling per annum. His role in subsequent years as overseer would have included managing the estate’s enslaved peoples and promoting labour through the whip. His work complete by 1810, MacQueen travelled home and later became the editor of the pro-slavery Glasgow Courier and was employed by the Glasgow West India Association to disseminate similar propaganda in the 1820s. Sadly these days, Westerhall holds no record of MacQueen’s employment but there are lots of clues to the estates past.  You could envision MacQueen walking through this boiling house (which would have been covered by a roof) up to the upper reaches of the estate where the ‘big house’ was situated and then down to the sugar fields nearby the sea. The date at the top left of this adjoining building (probably sugar works) outline it was built in 1800 just after the rebellion. SAM_3111You may almost hear MacQueen barking orders in a thick Lanarkshire accent to masons over from Scotland and to the enslaved persons employed in the works. The stills here are said to be a remnant when the estate was under French control sometime before 1763. The surviving mill and aqueduct illustrates the transition to heavy industry from slave labour after emancipation in 1834.

 

SAM_3112

 

The mills were made in Glasgow in 1860-1861 and this example underlines how Scotland profiteered in successive stages of the colonial economy. The primitive accumulation of capital was made in the New World which fuelled Scotland’s rise to industrial nation. By the 1860s, Scottish manufactories were exporting engineered goods across the British Empire. MacQueen lived a long life (dying aged 92) and would have seen many changes, how often would his thoughts turned to Westerhall and the thirteen year period that shaped his life? SAM_3058

 

 

MacQueen returned with wealth based on the expropriation of labour from enslaved peoples which must have funded his activities in Glasgow. So you may now return with a new understanding of the Scots in the Caribbean and their legacy today.

 

 

 

Reference

[1] For a thorough account of the Johnstone family, see Emma Rothschild’s magisterial The Inner Life of Empires: An Eighteenth Century History, (U.K.: Princeton University Press, 2011),

[2] See David Lambert, ‘The “Glasgow King of Billingsgate”: James MacQueen and an Atlantic proslavery network’ Slavery and Abolition29 (2008), pp. 389-413 and his more recent account, Mastering the Niger: James MacQueen’s African Geography and the Struggle over Atlantic Slavery, (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013).

[3] David Lambert, Mastering the Niger: James MacQueen’s African Geography and the Struggle over Atlantic Slavery, (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013), p.247.

Grenada Heritage: Headmaster of Boy’s Secondary School

In our continuing series on capturing Grenadian heritage we look at – David Hedog-Jones.

By Ric Greaves 18 Oct 2013

David Hedog-Jones (c1875-1942)

Grenadian School Headmaster; WWI Captain; African School Headmaster; and Vicar.

Margaret Edith (née Martin) with her new husband David Hedog-Jones,
Captain in the British West Indian Regiment, on their wedding day 29th of July 1916.

David Hedog-Jones was probably born not far from Hedog in Gwynedd North Wales, close to Aberdaron, sometime in the 1870’s, however his birth and marriage details have currently not been found.

Unfortunately we know almost nothing of his early life and indead exactly how how he came to be in Grenada.

We do know that in 1910 he earned his National Diplomas (B.A., B.Sc.) in Dairying from the University College of Wales (Aberystwyth) and the British Dairy Institute, Reading and must have taken up the post of Headmaster a Grenada Boy’s Secondary School (GBSS) immediately.

The GBSS was founded as a fee-paying school back in 1885 by the Cocoa and Sugar planters of the island for their children and followed the English grammar school style of education.  However, the Colonies were looking to develop education throughout the empire and at about this time the school was reorganized and reopened at the renovated premises on Melville Street, Saint George’s as a free government school with between seventy and eighty boys on the 18th of September 1911.

In 1912 David, as Headmaster of GBSS, published his paper on “Agricultural Education in Grenada“.  It illustrated the difficulty he and Grenadian schools in general had with the development of vital education in the field of agriculture.  The paper dealt with the importance of agricultural education on the island in its various aspects as consideration on the part of authorities in the West Indies, during the previous decade, particularly the work of the Imperial Department of Agriculture.  At the time attempts had been made to introduce rural teaching into Grenada elementary schools, the main purpose of the paper was to show how the re-constituted secondary school in that island would be made to bear relationship to the island in general and to the agricultural community in particular.  It seams, however, that he failed in attempts to introduce nature study as a useful subject, into Grenada elementary schools.  The lack of requisite and sympathetic knowledge on the part of teachers in the schools — a condition due specifically to the fact that lectures given to such teachers in the in the earlier years were not followed up by further courses.  The enthusiasm first engendered soon waned, and a few years later it was proposed that grants should be curtailed in the case of schools that did not use their agricultural plots.  The matter began to be serious toward 1907, and since that time the agricultural plot were finally literally abandoned.

This was followed by his attendance to the eighth West Indian Agricultural Conference held in Jamaica in January that year and prompted his 71 page paper entitled the same.

Meanwhile his experiences in Grenada promoted his drive to understand the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of the islands people – leading him to attain another M.A. from Jesus College at the University of Oxford in 1914.  This led to his next two books “Glimpses of the Caribbees and Elsewhere” and “West Indian Studies” which look into folk lore, religion, magic, agricultural conference, and glimpses of the Caribees.


Unfortunately on the 28th of July of that year, just one month after the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand and his wife are assassinated by the student Gavrilo Princip, the world was thrown into the horrors of our First World War and the estimated casualties of 37 million men which included 8.5 million deaths.  A dark cloud is looming over everyone in the British Colonies and would soon reach the Caribbean and Grenada…
In April of 1915 David encourages the GBSS to published a school magazine, “The Caribbean” which outlines the progressive work school and he himself submits an article on agricultural education in Grenada emphasizing the necessity of bringing the teaching of the primary schools into a more direct connexion with that of the secondary school.  The following year the magazine contained an interesting collection of folklore and brings out the striking characteristic of West African folklore, namely, the strong personification of animals, particularly the spider and also a list of West Indian proverbs.

Lt. David D. H. J. Martin-Jone

David had met Margaret Edith (born in 1876 in Sunderland, Durham, England), she was the daughter of Canon Henry Martin.  It wasn’t too long before the couple had a a son, David Henry James who went on also to have gain an M.A., have a military career as Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force, receive an M.B.E, and become a Councillor in 1966 and Mayor of Cheltenham (England) by 1974.

With the war looming many young couples felt a more urgent need to make their commitment to each other more permanent and likewise David married Edith on the 29th of July 1916.

However with the heavy rains of October 1916, the looming war began calling more of it’s children to fight and David had to leave the GBSS and join up.  His departure was noted as follows:-

“Owing to the departure of Mr. Hedog-Jones, science teaching at the Grenada Boys’ School is in abeyance. This has caused delay in the beginning of work under the new agricultural cadetship scheme”.

On the 29th of November 1916 Captain David Hedog-Jones of the Grenada Volunteer Force takes up his position as Temporary Lieutenant of the Fifth Battalion of the British West Indian Regiment.
By the May of the following year he is made Temporary Captain in the Oversea Contingent of the BWIR.  Like all staff officers he was in the classification FF which denoted gradings for War Office posts for pay and allowances of up to £400 per annum. Finally by in August of 1919 Captain C. H. Burke relinquished his rank, David was obliged to take up the position of Temporary Major. During the end of 1917 their second child, daughter Edith is born in Great Ouseburn, Yorkshire (England).

We haven’t, as yet, found the records of his war career but we do know that when in February of 1920 David was in Haifa, Palestine on the staff of the Department of Agriculture at a time when the first of two large political demonstrations took place proceeding the events of Easter weekend David was very much there and wrote:-

…in the absence of both police and soldiers, the breaking open of shops in the New Bazaar, and looting was absolutely unrestrained“.

The war over, officially David relinquished his rank of Temporary Major two years later in October of 1920.  At about this time he became a member of the Palestine Oriental Society and Society of Cymmrodorion.
As with many soldiers of that period it is evident that the war had a profound effect on David.  Most certainly with the influence and support of Margaret Edith he turned to religion and became a Vicar and in 1923 the family are living at the Kelloe Vicarage in Coxhoe, Durham (England).

At some point in 1923 David was invited by Hugh Clifford to take up a post as the Organiser of Practical Education to control the Trade Schools in Accra on the Gold Coast and he and Margaret travelled by ship to Ghana, Africa.  He was there to aid with the development of education in Accra as Headmaster and member of the ‘European’ (as apposed to African) staff of the four JUNIOR TRADE SCHOOLS, which consisted of three other headmasters Lieut.-Col. E. St. J. Christophers (deceased by 14 Feb 1924), D.S.O., Captain H. G. Ardron, Captain A. Drake. Brockman, and one relief headmaster). The African staff were four each of Woodwork, Metalwork, Masonry, Agricultural and Literary instructors.

Although he took five months leave in the second half of that first year he spent the whole of the next two years there teaching and developing the schools.  He wrote a short report on the four Junior Trade Schools on the 17 Aug 1925.  They were all, at the time, in temporary buildings one for the Eastern Province (Kibi with 72 pupils), the Central and Western Provinces (Assuantsi, 60 pupils),Northern Territories (Yendi, 90 pupils), and one for the Ashanti (Mampong, 60 pupils.  This later school was originally ministered by Elizabeth W Telfer as headmistress in charge of the Province until, April 12th when she left and David then took charge, and he was required to combine the duties of Acting Provincial Inspector of Schools and Headmaster of the Junior Trade School, Mampong. until she returned on October 1st.

Rev. David and Margaret Edith returned to England some time before 1929 when the family moved to the Brookthorpe Vicarage, near Gloucester (England) where they remain for some ten years.  Then in March of 1932 he was the Incumbent of the Benefice of Brookthorpe with Whaddon where he was on the Toddington Parish Council with Margaret Edith.

The former educator of the Grenada Boy’s Secondary School passed away whilst at home in Ewesham Road, Toddington near Cheltenham (England) on Tuesday 24th of March 1942.

Ten years later David’s son married a member of the Grimsby family of Lincolnshire (England) and county tennis player, Miss Susan Anningston Tickler, daughter of the late Mr Harry Tickler, at St James’ Church on the 7th of July 1952.  And Margaret Edith lives almost another two decade and died as a widow aged 84 on the 24th of November 1960 in the family home.

References

  • D. Hedog-Jones, “Agricultural Education in Grenada, with Special Reference to the Secondary School for Boys”, West Indian Bulletin, vol. 12-13, 1912, p.221
  • D. Hedog-Jones, “A West Indian Agricultural Conference”, 1912, pp.71
  • D. Hedog-Jones, “Glimpses of the Caribbees and Elsewhere”, 1914, pp.97
  • The Agricultural News, vol. 14, no. 338, 1915, p.124
  • The Agricultural News, vol. 15, no. 358, 1916, p.44
  • D. Hedog-Jones, “West Indian Studies”, 1916, pp.97
  • Ed., D. Hedog-Jones, “The Caribbean”, vol. 1, 8vo., 1916
  • The London Gazette, Issues 30295 to 32127
  • Palin report, British National Archives (FO 371/5121)
  • Gloucestershire Echo, 1942, p.4
  • Cheltenham Chronicle, 1942, p.6
  • C. L. Joseph, “The British West Indies Regiment 1914–1918″, Journal of Caribbean History, vol. II, May 1971, pp. 94–124

Lest We Forget – The British West Indies Regiment

The British West Indies Regiment

IWM

Three lads of the British West Indies Regiment

The regular West India Regiment long pre-dated the “Great War” and its 1st Battalion, based at Freetown, sent a detachment for service in German Cameroons. 2nd Battalion saw much service in the West and East African campaigns and then went to Palestine in September 1918.

The so called “Great War” or World War I, covering the four years of 1914 to 1918, began in central Europe in late July 1914, and though it’s causes included many churlish factors – such as the conflicts and hostility between the larger European powers of the four decades leading up to the war – militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict that ended in throwing away the lives of millions of young men – not for what they believed to be true and good but for a select few who beleived their power was under threat. The immediate origins of the war, therefore, lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the “July Crisis” of 1914 caused by the assassination of an Archduke, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophie by the Surbian student Gavrilo Princip, an irredentist member of a Serbian nationalist organization called Black Hand.

Following the outbreak of these hostilities in 1914 many West Indians left the colonies to enlist in the army in the UK and were recruited into British regiments. However, the War Office was concerned with the number of black soldiers in the army and tried to prevent any people from the West Indies enlisting. Indeed, the War Office threatened to repatriate any who arrived. Eventually, after much discussion between the Colonial Office and the War Office, and the intervention of King George V, approval to raise a West Indian contingent was given on 19 May 1915. On 26 October 1915 the British West Indies Regiment was established.

The creation of the British West Indies Regiment, passed on 3 November 1915, was formalised by Army Order number 4 of 1916. The Order stated that the regiment would be recognised as a corps for the purposes of the Army Act.

Battalions formed by this regiment

1st Battalion
Formed at Seaford, Sussex, England from West Indies volunteers: A Company from British Guiana, B from Trinidad, C from Trinidad & St. Vincent, D from Grenada & Barbados.
Served in Egypt and Palestine.
War diary September 1915 – April 1919 (WO95/4427, 4433, 4410, 4732)

2nd Battalion
Served in Egypt and Palestine.
War diary January 1916 – April 1919 (WO95/4427, 4433, 4732)

3rd Battalion
Served in France & Flanders.
War diary March 1916 – January 1919 (WO95/4465, 338)

4th Battalion
Served in France & Flanders.
War diary May – November 1918 (WO95/409)

5th Battalion
A reserve draft-finding unit .
War diary July 1916 – April 1919 (WO95/4465)

6th Battalion
Served in France & Flanders.
War diary March 1917 – April 1919 (WO95/495)

7th Battalion
Served in France & Flanders.
War diary June – December 1917 (WO95/409)

8th Battalion
Served in France & Flanders and went to Italy in 1918.
War diary July – December 1917 (WO95/338)

9th Battalion
Served in France & Flanders and went to Italy in 1918.
War diary July – December 1917 (WO95/338)

10th Battalion
Served in France and Italy.

11th Battalion
Served in France and Italy.

Pic

The regimental badge as depicted by CWGC on the gravestone of Pte 13576 Phillip Byles of the 10th Battalion. He now lies in Longuenesse Souvenir Cemetery near St Omer in France. Author’s collection.

The contribution of the West Indies

A total of 397 officers and 15,204 men, representing all Caribbean colonies, served in the BWIR. Of the total, 10,280 (66%) came from Jamaica. Athough at least 380 men served in this war from Grenada, they had joined many regiments all over the globe (primarily throughout the USA).

In addition contributing to the British West Indies regiment, Bermuda raised two more contingents: the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps (which was attached to the 1st Lincolnshire Regiment) and the Bermuda Garrison Artillery. Other men joined other British and Canadian regiments; some quite possibly joined the United States army too but we have yet to confirm this.

Further reading

  • F. Cundall, Jamaica’s Part in the Great War, 1914–1918 (Institute of Jamaica, 1925)
  • Guy Grannum, Tracing Your West Indian Ancestors (PRO Publications, 2002)
  • C. L. Joseph, “The British West Indies Regiment 1914–1918”, Journal of Caribbean History, vol. II, May 1971, pp. 94–124
  • Richard Smith, Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War (Manchester University Press, 2004)
  • J. A. P. M. Andrade, A Record of the Jews in Jamaica: From the English Conquest to the Present Time (Jamaica, 1941). This includes a list of the Jewish members of the Forces who were from Jamaica, who served during the First World War (not all of whom served with the BWIR).
  • The list of the first 380 Grenadian men aged 14 to 40 who left for the US, UK, Canada and Austrailia shortly before WW1 and then joined up, G.N.A, 1920, pp.4.

Grenada Heritage: Capture Grenadian Faces

In our continuing series on capturing Grenadian images and the category of faces we look at – David Pitt.

By Ric Greaves 3 Oct 2013

David Thomas Pitt (1913-1994)

Grenadian, Caribbean, General Practitioner; Politician; UK Labour Peer; UK Civil Rights Leader.


L-R: David Michael, Lord David Pitt of Hampstead, Hon. Herbert A. Blaize, late Prime Minister of Grenada, Carriacou & Petite Martinique.

David Pitt was born in St David’s, Grenada on the 3rd of October 1913 the son of headteacher Cyril S. L. Pitt [and ———] and was educated Grenada Boys’ Secondary School.

David Pitt first visited Britain in 1929 when he was 15, representing Grenada at a scout jamboree. Three years later he returned to take up one of the rare Island Scholarships, allowing him to study as a medical student at Edinburgh University in southern Scotland.

This was in the midst of the Great Depression of the 1930s and in the working-class slum districts of Edinburgh, as a young man that Davis Pitt realised that the effects of poverty, on people’s health and quality of life, were the same everywhere—in the slums of Scotland’s capital or the villages of Grenada. This was the beginnings of his long and effective career, combining general medical practice and politics and he would become a socialist and joined the British Labour Party as a student. Racial discrimination was rampant and this urged him to joined the League of Coloured Peoples founded in 1931 by Dr. Harold Moody, and supported the cause of anti-colonial sweeping the English-speaking Caribbean.

After qualifying with distinction (MB, ChB) in 1938 he returned to the Caribbean and after junior appointments in St Vincent and then two years as a government employee at the San Fernando Hospital he established a general practice in San Fernando, Trinidad between 1941 and 1947. Whilst there he met and married 1943 Dorothy Elaine Alleyne and they had three children.

During this very short period he became somewhat prominent in West Indian politics. He was elected to the San Fernando Borough Council in 1941 and formed the West Indian National Party (WINP) late in 1942, though it didn’t become really active until 1944-45. It was a South-based, socialist party, with a programme that was radical for the early 1940s: eventual Independence for a West Indian Federation, immediate self-government for Trinidad and Tobago, and eventual state ownership of the oil industry. Politicians like Roy Joseph, Albert Gomes and Quintin O’Connor joined it.

World War two was still raging, but it was becoming clear that at war’s end, Trinidad and Tobago would be granted adult suffrage—everyone over 21 can vote—and greater powers for the elected members of the Legislative Council.

Once the war ended in 1945, everyone began gearing up for the elections of 1946, the first under adult suffrage. As as Deputy Mayor in 1946-47 and being one of the founders and leader of the West Indian National Party, he sought Commonwealth status for a Federation of the West Indies. Pitt’s WINP joined with other left-wing groups to contest as the United Front. Three of its members won seats—Joseph, Gomes and Patrick Solomon—but Pitt was defeated by the Victoria County seat; a constituency which had a majority of rural Indo-Trinidadians, mostly Hindus, for which Ranjit Kumar had used his birth in India, and fluency in Hindi, to great advantage.

In 1947 disillusioned at the results of the 1946 elections and his defeat David Pitt decided to return to England, where he lived for the rest of his life.

In Britain, David Pitt was a successful and popular doctor, with a practice in North Gower Street, London and built up a busy, singlehanded practice which he would run for the next 30 years.

But he also soon engaged in Labour Party politics in St Pancras promoting the cause of immigrants throughout Britain and at the Labour Party conference in 1958 he was an impressive and mature man already deeply immersed in the struggles around race and human rights both in Britain and abroad.

Some black people regard me as an Uncle Tom,” David Pitt once said, “while some whites regard me as a Black Power revolutionary. So I imagine I got it about right. You can’t hold these two views at the same time,” he said. “If we believe in outlawing racial discrimination at home we can’t do it by saying `Keep them out’.” “People would have got to know me. My colour would have been less significant.” “You can’t campaign against injustice here and ignore what is happening elsewhere,” he said. “It is all part and parcel of the same struggle.

He campaigned twice for a seat in the House of Commons, adopted as Labour parliamentary candidate for Hampstead in 1959 (the first person of African descent to stand for a Commons seat) and again at Clapham in 1970.  He failed to win either seat in campaigns clouded by racial overtones and he did not run for Parliament again.

David Pitt emerged in the 1950s and 1960s as a leading campaigner for racial justice in Britain and abroad. He co-founded the Anti-Apartheid Movement, to fight against apartheid in South Africa; and in 1965 he founded the Campaign Against Racial Discrimination (CARD), to fight for racial justice in Britain, the later playing a crucial role in lobbying for the Race Relations Acts of 1968 and 1976.

On 21 March 1961 the then London Evening Times carried the following report:

Doctor Tells of Blaze: A baronet and two other men were alleged at Clerkenwell today to have been among a party of men who set fire to the offices of the Anti Apartheid Movement in Gower Street, Bloomsbury. On the 4th of March, the Anti Apartheid Movement had organised a March from Great Russell Street to Hyde Park to begin at 4pm. At 4.30pm a group of men drove up to the house, several of them went to the door and obtained entry by a trick. They then went down to the basement where the offices of these organisations are and they set fire to it. Dr David Pitt, a coloured man, said he had a surgery and waiting room on the ground floor of the premises.

He was made president of Campaign against Racial Discrimination in 1965, member of the National Committee for Commonwealth Immigrants for 1965 to 1967 and deputy chairman of Community Relations Commission 1968-77. Meanwhile he was successful London Labour Party politics winning and holding for 16 years a London County Council/Greater London Council seat for Hackney, becoming chairman of the council in 1974-75. He was also a magistrate for several years.

He has been given credit as the driving force behind UK’s 1976 Race Relations Act which set up the Commission for Racial Equality to enforce it and it remained the standard for ensuring good race relations, prosecuting racism in the courts and judging whether employees had been discriminated against for the next 24 years until the Amendment in 2000.

Awarded honorary degrees by universities of West Indies, Bradford, Bristol, Hull, and Shaw University (North Carolina). Awarded Order of the Trinity Cross (Trinidad and Tobago) 1976. Made president of BMA 1985-6 and appointed deputy lieutenant of Greater London 1988.

Although not the first peer of Caribbean decent (that was Trinidadian Learie Constantine, ennobled in 1969), in recognition of his status, the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson of the Labour government made him a life peer (a lord) on the 3rd of February 1975 – and on the 10th  of February 1975 at 2:30pm David Thomas Pitt, Esquire, having been created Baron Pitt of Hampstead, of Hampstead in Greater London and Hampstead in Grenada, for life was, in his robes, introduced between the Lord Morris of Kenwood and the Baroness Llewelyn-Davies of Hastoe.

He took the title Lord Pitt of Hampstead from both his London Parliamentary seat he tried winning in 1959, and the village in Grenada where he was born. As a member of the House of Lords for nearly 20 years, Pitt attended regularly and spoke often on causes dear to his heart.

An honour he greatly cherished was his election for his year 1985-86 as head of the British Medical Association, the first Caribbean, black person, and few GPs (ordinary family doctors), to hold this prestigious post.

Some felt that by accepting a seat in the House of Lords David Pitt was “joining the establishment and deserting his fellow immigrants”. But in the house he always spoke eloquently and often passionately on behalf of ethnic and other disadvantaged groups. He quickly made friends with peers of all political persuasions, effectively disarming much lurking prejudice.

For 12 years he managed to combine running a singlehanded practice of 2000 patients during the day with politics and official duties in the evenings. Despite his heavy political commitments he was a listening general practitioner.

David Pitt was more proud of his election as president of the BMA than of any of his other achievements – including his peerage. During and after his presidential year his speeches seemed to become more authoritative and incisive, though never lacking the humour and courtesy which was always his style. The seat in the House of Lords refreshment room from which he held court to a continuous stream of friends, relatives, and distinguished visitors from the Commonwealth almost every evening of the parliamentary year now seems strangely empty.

He was wonderful company. He loved people and they loved him. He held court for his friends right up until a few days before he died. He loved to argue and would often stop someone in full flood by saying loudly “Listen to me” and then proceed to demolish the arguer. Many of his visitors in the last few days were from the Caribbean; so were the many messages, for he never forgot his roots. “I am a Grenadian first and a Caribbean”.
In his final year, while critically ill with cancer, David Pitt reiterated his primary views. Racial equality and advancement was his goal. Broad anti-racist alliances with sympathetic groups in British society were necessary to bridge race, class and ideological grounds. In these efforts he was supported by his family and trusted colleagues, among them the trade unionist Bill Morris, head of the Transport and General Workers, and the media expert and BBC governor Dame Jocelyn Barrow.
David Thomas Pitt died of cancer on the 18th of December 1994. He was survived by his wife, Dorothy Elaine Alleyne; a son Bruce Pitt; and two daughters, one of whom is a consultant anesthetist in Trinidad, Phyllis Pitt-Miller.

In the same year as his death he was given a state funeral with full honours here in Grenada. In 2000 a ‘Blue Heritage’ plaque was put up outside his former surgery (doctor’s office) in London.

Our Heritage: Leslie “Hutch” Hutchinson Remembered

English Heritage Blue Plaque for Leslie “Hutch” Hutchinson

A publicity shot of Leslie Hutch Hutchinson
Leslie “Hutch” Hutchinson

A lost daughter rediscovers her Grenadian heritage and that a father she never knew was the link to our island – at one time considered a great cabaret stars of the twentieth century, then to have died in almost total obscurity – now to be honoured at his old London home in England.

The singer and pianist Leslie Hutchinson (1900-1969) – known to all as ‘Hutch’ – was commemorated with an English Heritage blue plaque at 31 Steele’s Road, Chalk Farm, London in England – this was his home from 1929 to 1967. The plaque was unveiled by Hutch’s daughter Gabrielle Markes on Friday 5th October 2012 at 3pm.

Blue plaque to Hutch
Blue plaque to Leslie “Hutch” Hutchinson

Daughter Gabrielle Markes said:

“I was born 1930, taken away at birth and placed in a nursing home pending adoption. As soon as I was able, I began the long struggle to discover my parentage, and finally discovered in my middle-age, that Leslie Hutchinson – fondly known as Hutch – was my father. Further research led me to propose to English Heritage that a blue plaque be placed on the house that Hutch lived in for almost four decades. This ceremony is a very special day for me, and is the culmination of over 60 years searching for the truth.”

Early Years

Hutch was one of the most popular cabaret entertainers of the 1930s and took London’s café society by storm. He created a stir by arriving at nightclubs with a white piano strapped to his chauffeur-driven car, dressed like an aristocrat, and dazzled audiences with his brilliance at the piano keyboard. Hutch’s skill in singing popular songs with sincerity and his ability to shift between West Indian, black Harlem, white American and upper-class English idioms, ensured that he had a wide appeal. His success was achieved in spite of racial prejudice – he was often asked to arrive by the servants’ entrance when invited to play at grand Mayfair houses.

Born at Gouyave, Grenada 7 March 1900 to George Hutchinson and Marianne (née Turnbull), Leslie Arthur Julien Hutchinson was introduced to music by his father and took up piano from an early age. He left school at sixteen and after a brief spell as a civil servant, moved to New York where he played piano at parties. He had some success, but at a party in Palm Beach he was alarmed by the open racism shown by members of the Ku Klux Klan and, in 1924, he left the US for Paris with his wife Ella and daughter Leslie. In Paris he met the songwriter Cole Porter, who became a close friend and mentor, and Hutch – as he now styled himself – perfected the art of singing Porter’s songs.

In 1927 Hutch was invited to London by the impresario C. B. Cochran to play in the Rodgers and Hart musical One Dam’ Thing After Another. His nightly cabaret performances after the show at the Café de Paris soon became the hottest ticket in town and led to a string of invitations to play at London’s most exclusive parties. Between 1928 and 1930 Hutch performed in four more successful Cochran revues and gained a national profile after touring the country with these shows. It was also then he signed a recording contract with Parlaphone, paving the way for a succession of hits such as such as ’High Hat’, ‘Ain’t Misbehaving’ and ‘You’re the Cream in my Coffee’.

Superstardom and Later Life

By the mid-1930s Hutch was a superstar and mobbed by crowds wherever he went. Throughout these years of stardom, Hutch kept his wife and daughter out of the limelight, rarely including them in his social life, and fathered eight, or possibly more, children through different relationships. In stark contrast, he conducted a number of high-society affairs in public; his long-standing affair with Edwina Mountbatten was an open secret in Mayfair clubs and bars. While this scandal closed some doors to him, Hutch went on to perform and record many of his most successful hits, such as ‘Night and Day’, ‘Smoke Gets in Your Eyes’, ’These Foolish Things‘ and ‘Begin the Beguine’. These records, combined with his late-night sessions at London clubs including Frisco’s and Quaglino’s – where he often performed in front of the Prince of Wales and Wallis Simpson – marked the height of his career.

During the Second World War Hutch became a popular act variety act and entertained the crowds sheltering in the Underground during air raids. As the war ended, his style of music fell out of fashion, but in 1953 he made a comeback and he returned to Quaglino’s, where he entertained a new generation of bright young things, including Princess Margaret.

He married Ella Byrd, a woman of African, English, and Chinese ancestry, in 1923/4 in New York City. Their daughter, Lesley Bagley Yvonne, was born on 9 April 1926. Hutch would go on to sire six further children with five different mothers. Gordon was born in August 1928, Gabrielle in September 1930, Gerald and Chris in 1948, and Graham (Chris’s full brother) in 1953, and Emma in April 1964.

31 Steele’s Road – a detached house built in 1874 by the architect J. M. Brydon – was Hutch’s home and base for nearly all the years he lived in London. He moved here in June 1929 with his wife, daughter and brother, just as he made his breakthrough, and only left in 1967, when he was forced to sell it to pay off bank debts. The house was furnished with a mixture of old-fashioned oak furniture and Art Deco lamps, and the piano in the drawing room was strewn with silver ornaments from his admirers.

Following his wife’s death in 1958, Hutch struggled with worsening financial problems and was reduced to playing in tawdry clubs. Suffering from ill-health in his later years Hutch died in Hampstead, London, England from pneumonia on 19 August 1969 aged 69, almost an unknown. Only 42 people attended his funeral yet notably, Lord Mountbatten paid for the cost of his funeral.

Dr Susan Skedd, Blue Plaques Historian, said:

“Hutch overcame considerable prejudice to become one of the stars of the London cabaret scene of the 1930s. His elegant persona, smooth delivery and dexterity at the keyboard brought him adulation. Though no songwriter himself, he was fortunate to live in an era of great lyricists such as Porter, Gershwin, Berlin, Rodgers and Kern and recorded more than 400 songs, many still available today. The plaque to Hutch will act as a lasting reminder of his remarkable achievements and of his prominent place in the musical history of London.”

Grenada Heritage: Chasing William Macintosh

Who was Macintosh

Thanks to enterprising researcher I. Keighren (UoL) we get a little hint of this character and his place in Grenadian history.

William Macintosh was an eighteenth-century Scottish merchant, Caribbean plantation owner, world traveller, and controversial author of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa (1782). He was a product of empire, but also sought to shape and influence Britain’s imperial project through persuasion and publication. This blog is a record of my efforts to recover Macintosh from the shadows and to throw new light onto his life and work in the production of a monograph provisionally entitled The forgotten radical: William Macintosh and the transnational circulation of seditious print in the Age of Revolution.

Macintosh’s life was one lived through the Republic of Letters and during the Age of Revolution. The list of those who met, read, or corresponded with Macintosh—Louis-Antoine, Comte de BougainvilleJacques Pierre BrissotEdmund BurkeAaron BurrOlaudah EquianoCharles FoxPhilip FrancisCatherine GrandWarren HastingsJohann Gottfried HerderThomas JeffersonAdam SmithWilliam Pitt the Younger, and George Washington, among many others—signals to his significance to the intellectual and political life of the last quarter of the eighteenth century.

Research began at the Archives départementales de Vaucluse – home to the largest single collection of primary material relating to William Macintosh. For reasons that still remain mysterious, Macintosh spent most of the 1780s there in Avignon, where he traded and ran a lodging house. Forced to leave the city during the Revolution, his papers were seized and deposited here. These records have never previously been referred to by any scholar working in English.

More there than expected, the information spreads across six large bundles of nearly 3,000 individual items of correspondence, memoranda, invoices, and legal documents. They cover part of Macintosh’s time as a planter in Grenada, his journeys around India in the late 1770s, and his residence in Avignon in the 1780s. Rather disappointingly, no reference so far is made to the book he published in 1782 based upon his travels in India, although there are preliminary notes and memoranda that eventually found their form in the book.
Archival bundle

Given that so little has previously been written about Macintosh, most of what is encountered is coming as a surprise, particularly the extent and complexity of his business dealings in the West Indies. Rather than simply a plantation manager, Macintosh had a number of official positions and governmental roles in the colony, including being Comptroller of His Majesty’s Customs in Grenada. In addition to his own business dealings, Macintosh served as attorney for several friends, and executor for others, so seems continually to have been involved in the purchase or disposal of land and assets.

There is evidence to suggest that, at certain times, Macintosh and his family (wife, son, and daughter) were together in Grenada, but it is clear that for the most part they were separated. One long and rather touching letter sent from Macintosh to his son, then aged 11, shows that, for Macintosh, parenting was something done at a distance, and most often by the written word. Although correspondence exits between Macintosh and his son and daughter, there seems to be nothing to or from Mrs Macintosh (although invoices for her domestic purchases, as well as clothing and jewellery attest to her existence).
Macintosh's commonplace book.

Macintosh was an ideas man, and had strong opinions about (as well as proposed solutions to) the various political problems of the late eighteenth century. Many of these took first written form in Macintosh’s letters and his commonplace book. The one for 1778 outlines various schemes, including a “Plan for preserving the health & lives, & for the better regulation of British seamen; for defending and securing the British commerce, and for manning the Royal Navy” and one (which has a clear contemporary relevance) for “reducing the national debt, without increasing taxes, & without exposing Government to any fixed or temporary inconveniences”.

Given the unexpected size of the collection, work is really only one of surveying and cataloguing, and the targeted transcription of key texts. There is much to be examined in detail at a later time. It seems clear, though, that Macintosh’s politics were shaped in the West Indies and particularly by what he saw as the corruption and mismanagement of British colonies there. Aside from the big questions of politics and economics, there are plenty of quotidian snippets in the archive too. One particular favourite is a long series of correspondence, culminating in legal proceedings, concerning a dispute between Macintosh and his French builder who, it seems, was a cowboy. Rogue traders were as much a feature of eighteenth-century life as they are today.

A family rift

Jean-Frédéric Perregaux, Macintosh's "old friend", trustee, and attorney

In November 1791, The Gentleman’s Magazine recorded the recent marriage at Ostend of William Macintosh’s daughter, Maria (or Mary), to Alexander Augustus, “the Chevalier le Sieur de Colleville, son to the present Marchioness de Colleville, of Normandy, a French officer in the infantry”. Maria, who had been born in Grenada in 1770, was then aged 21. The marriage was a fruitful (and, initially, happy) one. The couple had four children.

In his 1807 will, Macintosh appointed Alexander trustee and attorney together with the Swiss banker, and “old friend”, Jean-Frédéric Perregaux (1744–1808). The trust Macintosh placed in his son in law was, however, misplaced. In 1810 (or possibly 1816) Macintosh was forced to supply a codicil to his will, “revoking and annulling” Alexander’s claim and role. Alexander, it seems, had “abandoned his wife and family and Country in a manner highly disreputable and offensive without having had the least provocation”. With four children to raise alone, Macintosh appointed his daughter “sole heiress of all and whatsoever I may die possessed of in the first place for her own subsistence and the maintenance and education of her four Children”. Macintosh’s will and codicil were proved at London on 13 April 1816. Maria died in 1853.

Taking account

David Lambert‘s new monograph Mastering the Niger, which was published late last year by the University of Chicago Press, concerns a number of themes, including the production of geographical knowledge, the role of observation and testimony in the making of geographical fact, and the production and evaluation of credibility. His biographical focus is on the Scots Caribbean planter turned Glasgow merchant and businessman, James MacQueen (1778–1870).

Although Macintosh was born a generation earlier than MacQueen, there are a number of interesting parallels between their lives. Both were part of the wave of Scots who took the opportunities afforded by the Act of Union in 1707 to forge their careers in the British Empire; both were planters in Grenada; both had important dealings with Sir William Pulteney (1729–1805); both were skilled and enthusiastic proponents of double-entry bookkeeping. In Macintosh’s case, he had had, from the age of 18, “the highest charge of money, papers, & books of accounts”.

In Mastering the Niger, David offers a fascinating discussion about the parallels between double-entry bookkeeping and processes of geographical inscription and abstraction (see Chapter 3) and between the notion of “balance” and MacQueen’s own ideas about the nature and direction of the British imperial project. The analogy is an exciting and interesting one, not least because it so well captures William Macintosh’s own practices and perspectives in relation to these matters.

Macintosh was a thorough and committed record keeper (particularly so in relation to financial matters). This concern was not limited to his personal finances, but to those of Grenada, India, and the British Empire more widely. The day-to-day practices of taking account were so significant to Macintosh that he prescribed them in a letter to his son, in which he laid out what he considered the indispensable skills for his son’s life: “I would wish you to know…[a]ll the common rules of arithmetic. Book-keeping as practiced by merchants, with double entry. The principles of mathematics. Geography. A just idea of astronomy. The principles of laws. And ancient and modern histories. Indeed, a man of business, cannot be competent without them”.

Macintosh’s commitment to accounting means that we have a reasonably good insight into his own financial standing at various points in his life. For instance, in 1775 he applied to the Dutch bank Hope and Company (founded by Scots) for a loan of £20,000, and, in so doing, set out his financial position at that point. His collateral, detailed below, was calculated at more than £45,500, comprising plantations (or shares of them), various mortgages and bonds, a number of slaves, his house, and his annual salary of £300 for his role as Comptroller of His Majesty’s Customs for the Port of Grenville in Grenada.
Macintosh's collateral in 1775

Macintosh and the Grenadian pamphlet war

Audi alteram partem (1770)

A recently-published article appeared in The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History by a graduate student (Aaron Willis) at the University of Notre Dame called “The standing of new subjects: Grenada and the Protestant constitution after the Treaty of Paris (1763)”.

Willis’s paper concerns the political difficulties which surrounded the incorporation of French Catholics into the British Empire following the ceding of Grenada at the end of the Seven Years’ War. In broad terms, opinion was divided among islanders as to the extent to which political rights which applied to British Protestants should be extended to French Catholics. These divisions resulted in political stalemate which lasted through much of the late 1760s and early 1770s. Willis offers a neat summary of the principal pamphlets which were issued during this period and argued, at turns, for and against the rights of French Catholics.

There is some evidence to suggest that one of these pamphlets—Audi alteram partem (1770)—which Willis describes as being “[t]he most sustained defence of Catholic rights” was co-authored by Macintosh. That, at least, was the opinion of an anonymous reviewer writing in The Political Register (May, 1770) who notedIt is almost needless to add, that Mr. Mackintosh [sic], Col. [James] Johnstone, and Mr. Scott are the Authors of Audi Alteram Partem…and are the agents and abettors of the Romish party there”. Clearly it will require some digging to determine whether or not there is any validity in this claim, or that Macintosh wasknown to be zealous in the cause of the Roman Catholic French subjects at Grenada”.

When Macintosh met Equiano

Frontispiece and title-page of The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789)

In efforts to piece together, from secondary fragments, the trajectory of William Macintosh’s life, one is sometimes surprised by the strange coincidences and unexpected moments of encounter which are revealed. One such is contained in The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789).

Equiano’s significance, as a freed slave, to the eighteenth-century abolitionist movement is well documented, but many are unaware that he and Macintosh had encountered one another in Grenada in 1771. Macintosh was, at that point, justice of the peace for the parish of St. Andrew’s and Equiano came to him to seek redress (unsuccessfully) over an unpaid debt. Equiano records the incident in his autobiography thus:

In April 1771 I shipped myself as a steward with Capt. Wm. Robertson of the ship Grenada Planter, once more to [end p. 95] try my fortune in the West Indies; and we sailed from London for Madeira, Barbadoes, and the Grenades. When we were at this last place, having some goods to sell, I met once more with my former kind of West India customers. A white man, an islander, bought some goods of me to the amount of some pounds, and made me many fair promises as usual, but without any intention of paying me. He had likewise bought goods from some more of our people, whom he intended to serve in the same manner; but he still amused us with promises. However, when our ship was loaded, and near sailing, this honest buyer discovered no intention or sign of paying for any thing he had bought of us; but on the contrary, when I asked him for my money he threatened me and another black man he had bought goods of, so that we found we were like to get more blows [end p. 96] than payment. On this we went to complain to one Mr. M’Intosh, a justice of the peace; we told his worship of the man’s villainous tricks, and begged that he would be kind enough to see us redressed: but being negroes, although free, we could not get any remedy; and our ship being then just upon the point of sailing, we knew not how to help ourselves, though we thought it hard to lose our property in this manner. Luckily for us however, this man was also indebted to three white sailors, who could not get a farthing from him; they therefore readily joined us, and we all went together in search of him. When we found where he was, I took him out of a house and threatened him with vengeance; on which, finding he was likely to be handled roughly, the rogue offered each of us some small allowance, but nothing near our demands. This [end p. 97] exasperated us much more; and some were for cutting his ears off; but he begged hard for mercy, which was at last granted him, after we had entirely stripped him. We then let him go, for which he thanked us, glad to get off so easily, and ran into the bushes, after having wished us a good voyage. We then repaired on board, and shortly after set sail for England (vol. 2, 95–98).

It’s a wondered quite how Macintosh, raised in the bracing climate of the highlands of Scotland, adapted to life in the tropical warmth of Grenada.

Macintosh and the Maroons

Detail of A new plan of the island of Grenada (1780).

Whilst there is a certain liberality of sentiment in Macintosh’s political philosophy, particularly as it concerned individual rights, it is important not to lose sight of the fact that Macintosh was both a slave owner and a tool of imperial control and repression in Grenada. Although the Maroons of Grenada (i.e., those slaves who had escaped from subjugation and who lived in isolated communities in rural areas) were never considered by British colonial administrators to be quite the threat that their counterparts in Jamaica were, Grenadian Maroons became a particular source of concern during the late 1760s as their numbers increased.

The late Grenadian politician George Brizan, in his 1984 volume Grenada: island of conflict, demonstrates that Macintosh had a particular role in the repression of Grenada’s Maroons during this period. Brizan (p. 97) notes that:-

As more and more runaway slaves joined their ranks the numbers of Maroons increased, and their sporadic acts of depredation [i.e., cattle theft] continued. In the latter part of 1769 these were the cause of great alarm in St. Andrew’s. By 13 December 1770, the situation was such that [Robert] Melville had to despatch an officer of the militia with 20 men to assist the inhabitants of St. Andrew’s, whom the Governor instructed to form groups and patrol the area in an attempt to suppress these “internal enemies”. The Justice of the Peace in the St. Andrew’s area, William McIntosh [sic], featured prominently in the organisation of these activities.

Determining what, precisely, Macintosh’s role was, will require some unpicking. Brizan’s supporting endnote for this information is unhelpful, listing only “Letter Book 1765-66“. The bibliography is not any more helpful, referring only to “Letter Books; 1763-1895. Selected Volumes: 1763-71, 1771-99, 1815-95” under the subheading “Grenada”. In his acknowledgements, Brizan does thanks the librarian of the Grenada Public Library, so it is the only clue that this is where the letter books were once held.

As we are all now well aware our library (also once containing our Grenada National Archives), had its collections badly damaged by the 2004 hurricane “Ivan”.  Sadly, the letter book covering the early 1770s has not  been digitised as part of the the British Library’s Endangered Archives Programme.

Once again, William Macintosh resists straightforward investigation.

Macintosh in Caribbeana

Title page of Caribbeana, volume 1.

In 1909 a new quarterly periodical focussing on Caribbean genealogy was launched by the wonderfully named English genealogist Vere Langford Oliver (1861–1942). Oliver’s journal—Caribbeana—ceased publication only ten years later in 1919 after six volumes and three supplements. Caribbeana has been digitised as part of the Digital Library of the Caribbean and is an important work of reference for scholars working on the history of the Caribbean. Macintosh makes a few, small appearances in the pages of Caribbeana.

Under the heading “A List of West Indian Deeds on the Close Rolls”, volume 1 of the journal records the following, for example: “George Johnston, John Rae by William Macintosh, Ann his wife. Grenada [1764], 14-12-13”. Read out of context, and in this abstract form, the information is not obviously revelatory. This snippet is interesting, however, because it dates Macintosh’s acquisition of land in Grenada and records the name of his wife (the first source seen which does so).

It is not immediately clear where these deeds are now stored. Assuming they were Public Record Office documents originally, it will take a bit of detective work to determine how they are now classified and where they are located on our island.